G-SYNC 101: Range

Blur Buster's G-SYNC 101: Range Chart

Exceeds G-SYNC Range

G-SYNC + V-SYNC “Off”:
G-SYNC disengages, tearing begins display wide, no frame delay is added.

G-SYNC reverts to V-SYNC behavior when it can no longer adjust the refresh rate to the framerate, 2-6 frames (typically 2 frames; approximately an additional 33.2ms @60 Hz, 20ms @100 Hz, 13.8ms @144 Hz, etc) of delay is added as rendered frames begin to over-queue in both buffers, ultimately delaying their appearance on-screen.

G-SYNC + Fast Sync*:
G-SYNC disengages, Fast Sync engages, 0-1 frame of delay is added**.
*Fast Sync is best used with framerates in excess of 2x to 3x that of the display’s maximum refresh rate, as its third buffer selects from the “best” frame to display as the final render; the higher the sample rate, the better it functions. Do note, even at its most optimal, Fast Sync introduces uneven frame pacing, which can manifest as recurring microstutter.
**Refresh rate/framerate ratio dependent (see G-SYNC 101: G-SYNC vs. Fast Sync).

Within G-SYNC Range

Refer to “Upper & Lower Frametime Variances” section below…

Upper & Lower Frametime Variances

G-SYNC + V-SYNC “Off”:
The tearing inside the G-SYNC range with V-SYNC “Off” is caused by sudden frametime variances output by the system, which will vary in severity and frequency depending on both the efficiency of the given game engine, and the system’s ability (or inability) to deliver consistent frametimes.

G-SYNC + V-SYNC “Off” disables the G-SYNC module’s ability to compensate for sudden frametime variances, meaning, instead of aligning the next frame scan to the next scanout (the process that physically draws each frame, pixel by pixel, left to right, top to bottom on-screen), G-SYNC + V-SYNC “Off” will opt to start the next frame scan in the current scanout instead. This results in simultaneous delivery of more than one frame in a single scanout (tearing).

In the Upper FPS range, tearing will be limited to the bottom of the display. In the Lower FPS range (<36) where frametime spikes can occur (see What are Frametime Spikes?), full tearing will begin.

Without frametime compensation, G-SYNC functionality with V-SYNC “Off” is effectively “Adaptive G-SYNC,” and should be avoided for a tear-free experience (see G-SYNC 101: Optimal Settings & Conclusion).

This is how G-SYNC was originally intended to function. Unlike G-SYNC + V-SYNC “Off,” G-SYNC + V-SYNC “On” allows the G-SYNC module to compensate for sudden frametime variances by adhering to the scanout, which ensures the affected frame scan will complete in the current scanout before the next frame scan and scanout begin. This eliminates tearing within the G-SYNC range, in spite of the frametime variances encountered.

Frametime compensation with V-SYNC “On” is performed during the vertical blanking interval (the span between the previous and next frame scan), and, as such, does not delay single frame delivery within the G-SYNC range and is recommended for a tear-free experience (see G-SYNC 101: Optimal Settings & Conclusion).

G-SYNC + Fast Sync:
Upper FPS range: Fast Sync may engage, 1/2 to 1 frame of delay is added.
Lower FPS range: see “V-SYNC ‘On'” above.

What are Frametime Spikes?

Frametime spikes are an abrupt interruption of frames output by the system, and on a capable setup running an efficient game engine, typically occur due to loading screens, shader compilation, background asset streaming, auto saves, network activity, and/or the triggering of a script or physics system, but can also be exacerbated by an incapable setup, inefficient game engine, poor netcode, low RAM/VRAM and page file over usage, misconfigured (or limited game support for) SLI setups, faulty drivers, specific or excess background processes, in-game overlay or input device conflicts, or a combination of them all.

Not to be confused with other performance issues, like framerate slowdown or V-SYNC-induced stutter, frametime spikes manifest as the occasional hitch or pause, and usually last for mere micro to milliseconds at a time (seconds, in the worst of cases), plummeting the framerate to as low as the single digits, and concurrently raising the frametime to upwards of 1000ms before re-normalizing.

G-SYNC eliminates traditional V-SYNC stutter caused below the maximum refresh rate by repeated frames from delayed frame delivery, but frametime spikes still affect G-SYNC, since it can only mirror what the system is outputting. As such, when G-SYNC has nothing new to sync to for a frame or frames at a time, it must repeat the previous frame(s) until the system resumes new frame(s) output, which results in the visible interruption observed as stutter.

The more efficient the game engine, and the more capable the system running it, the less frametime spikes there are (and the shorter they last), but no setup can fully avoid their occurrence.

Minimum Refresh Range

Once the framerate reaches the approximate 36 and below mark, the G-SYNC module begins inserting duplicate refreshes per frame to maintain the panel’s minimum physical refresh rate, keep the display active, and smooth motion perception. If the framerate is at 36, the refresh rate will double to 72 Hz, at 18 frames, it will triple to 54 Hz, and so on. This behavior will continue down to 1 frame per second.

Regardless of the reported framerate and variable refresh rate of the display, the scanout speed will always be a match to the display’s current maximum refresh rate; 16.6ms @60Hz, 10ms @100 Hz, 6.9ms @144 Hz, and so on. G-SYNC’s ability to detach framerate and refresh rate from the scanout speed can have benefits such as faster frame delivery and reduced input lag on high refresh rate displays at lower fixed framerates (see G-SYNC 101: Hidden Benefits of High Refresh Rate G-SYNC).

2778 Comments For “G-SYNC 101”

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Hi there!

First of all, thanks for the guide! helped a lot.

Now, to my question. I am looking to play Cyberpunk with the path-tracing settings, which is obviously a computional nightmare—even for my 4090. This would be the first time I will enable DLSS 3.0, which I will refer to as frame-generation (FG) from here on it. I will be using the perfomance-mode of DLSS 2.0, since I game at 4k and I want to mininze the input lag from FG; I believe the higher the native frame rate, the lower the input delay due to FG.

Now, from what I know, is that I should still enable V-sync from the NVIDIA control pannel. However, it is not needed to set the frame rate 3FPS below the monitor’s refersh rate, since that is automatically done by Reflex (which will be enabled by default when using FG).

However, I would still like to cap my frame rate below my native 120FPS, say at 100FPS, so that the frame rate is consistent. But, I noticed that the frame-rate limiter (both in-game and in the NVIDIA control panel) has zero affect. Is this beheviour expected?


I used the Gsync on – Vsync on (in NVCP) and frame rate cap to 160 (165hz max) from RTSS however I experience varying degrees of flickering in menus mostly but in some games too.

From what I know there is no way to fix the flickering as it is something normal for VA/OLED’s.

My question is if I can not detect tearing (most likely there is some but either high fps/oled smoothness or simply my eyes not detecting it)

I am thinking about playing with Gsync off and no vsync on and just an fps cap. Would that impact my experience?

Ideally I would like to keep gsync on due to the smoothness I feel with it however the flickering is a deal breaker for me.

What is the best combination if I do not wish to use Gsync, should I keep vsync and fps cap, or only the fps cap?

Thank you!


best settings for eafc 24?


hi, i have been playing cs2 for several weeks, my monitor is 1440p 144hz with gsync compatible, in the nvcp i have gsync on + vsync on, i also limit the fps to 141 inside the nvcp, then inside the game vsync off and the nvidia reflex off, i get 138fps as expected and everything works fine, but i have a question, should i play like this or disable the vsync in the nvcp for cs2 to go to 200 or 300fps? because as I understand the more fps the less frametime in ms, now I would have about 7.2ms but if I unlimit it and I go to 250fps I would have 4ms, is this really so and would it make any difference?


So windows 10 has something called VRR in the graphics setting. Should it be used in tandem with G-Sync + NVCP Vsync. Some sources and review just say to turn it on along with g-sync.